Over 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with HBV. There are approximately 350 million HBV carriers.
1-1.25 million people in the United States are chronically infected with HBV.
Most HBV cases are found among those between the ages of 20-39.
5,000 people in the United States die each year due to chronic liver disease associated with HBV.
90-95% of adults infected with HBV will recover in 6 months, and subsequently develop immunity.
Chronic infection develops in 5-10% of adults; 30-50% of children ages 1-5 years; and 80-90% of infants.
15-25% of all people chronically infected will die prematurely due to chronic liver disease.
Prevention practices include: screening blood and blood products, standard precautions, safety practices with sharps, destroying disposable needles, sterilizing reusable instruments, vaccinating people at risk and education regarding principles of preventive practice.
In order to determine immunity, it is currently recommended that post vaccination testing be done 1-2 months after completion of the vaccination series. The level of circulating anti-HBs will determine the effectiveness of the vaccination. The vaccination will produce only anti-HBs (protective antibody) and not anti-HBc. In the US, antibody level of 10mIU/ml or higher indicates immunity.
MuirLab provides diagnostic and serial follow-up testing for Hepatitis B, as well as post vaccination testing.