Gluten is a protein in grains such as wheat, barley, and rye. For people with celiac disease, gluten can cause intestinal inflammation and interfere with the absorption of nutrients. A gluten-free diet excludes gluten as a food source and is the only treatment for this condition.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder of the digestive system. For people with celiac disease, the inflammation gluten causes destroys the lining of the small intestine.
When someone with celiac disease eats food that contains gluten, their immune system damages the tiny, fingerlike protrusions in the small intestine (villi) that absorb nutrients from food. As a result, a person with celiac disease can become malnourished, no matter how much food they eat, if the food contains gluten.
If you have celiac disease, you should always avoid eating foods with gluten, such as:
Many products contain gluten even if the ingredients don’t directly list wheat, rye, or barley. Unless labeled gluten-free, you should also avoid:
It is necessary to thoroughly read food labels to identify hidden forms of gluten. If a label has a questionable ingredient, avoid it.
People with celiac disease can still eat a wide variety of foods. Many grocery chains and health food stores now carry gluten-free foods. If you have celiac disease, you can eat:
If you’re not sure whether a food is gluten-free, check the product’s food label or ask the manufacturer directly.